Services American Railroad Whistles, Train Whistles, The B. & O. Rail Road The P.R.R. and more (12 examles)

American Rail Road Mouth Whistles, (At work)
(To be continued with Train Whistles Steam Whistles and Horns)

Train workers, railway gaurds, and train conductors, were all using whistles, in the early days, wood whistles and whistles made of horn and metal at a later date. There was no standard and it seems that the B.&O. R.R. (Baltimore & Ohio Rail Road )  and the P.R.R
(Pennsylavania Rail Road) were the main companies that ordered stamped whistles for their employees. If B.&O. R.R. and P.R.R. had access to conference call services they may have decided upon one standard whistle to issue company wide. Instead, there is the wide range of whistle styles and materials we see today.
It seems that the first U.S patent for a metal mouth whistle was in the 1860's ,
(I will add patent details later)
The favoured whistle was the referee style, Escargot type whistle. and Glasgow type design not the London type Escargot.
I will bring few Examples and add notes later. Along with the some of the History of these two companies and a lesser known one the B from the wikipedia, see links.
there are also museums as the B & O Railroad Museum in West Baltimore , Baltimore MD.

Made and used   1880's to 1910   Bean's patent        
Bakelite with Aluminum insert

 Antimony lead whistle , Signal made in Germany stamped  B. & O. R. R. 1920's
Note flat loop .

Pensylvania Rail Road

           In General Pennsylvania Rairoad whistle are rarer.                                



P.R.R. Pensilvania Railroad

Vermont Railway Bennington & Rutland , the Jerry was a Locomotive
And these two Japanese made London type escargot whistles The whistles seem to had been made for this
railroad. both whistles are
very rare.


Cast metal London type escargot pre 1921 may be 1890's onward, stamped Nippon' on back.
The Nippon mark was used up to 1921 when the U S goverment had all imported goods from Japan
marked JAPAN and later Made in Japan. 
Norfolk Sousthern Railroad.

The last whistle is made od bakelite or some early plastic belonged to A.P.Melton who was a
conductor on the Norfolk Southern Railroad.
He hand engraved the whistle with his details. 1920's 30's.

I should bring the exact patent date and material soon.( can't find my papers ..)
Norfolk Southern Railway (1942–1982), a small predecessor of the present company,
earlier going by Norfolk Southern Railroad (1883–1891, 1910–1942),
Norfolk and Southern Railway, and Norfolk and Southern Railroad

Train Whistles
North American train whistles were in single-note, three-note,
five-note and six-note combinations.

North American steam locomotive whistles have different sounds from one another.
They came in many forms, from tiny little single-note shriekers,
called banshees on the Pennsylvania Railroad
to larger plain whistles
with deeper tones.
(a deep, plain train whistle is the "hooter" of the Norfolk & Western, used on their A- and
 Y-class Mallet locomotives). Even more well known were the multi-chime train whistles.
Nathan of New York copied and improved Casey Jones's boiler-tube
chime whistle by casting the
 six chambers into a single bell, with open "steps" on top to save on casting.
This whistle is still considered the king of train whistles
This whistle is the most copied train whistle in the United States, and many
railroads' shops cast their own version of it.
Another very popular American train whistle was, again, a Nathan product.
This was a five-note whistle, with much shorter bell, and therefore, much higher in pitch.
This whistle sang a bright G-major 6th chord (GBDEG) and, again, was heavily imitated,
copies being made by many different railroads.
Even the Chinese copied American five-chime whistles for their own locomotives
The final most popular American chime train whistle was the three-note version.
These were either commercially made by
 Crosby, Lunkenheimer, Star Brass, Hancock Inspirator Co. among others
or shop-made by the railroads themselves.
Some famous and very melodious
shop-made train whistles
were Pennsy's passenger chimes and the Baltimore and Ohio's step-top three chimes.
But the most beloved of all three-chime train whistles to the public and railroaders
alike were the deep-chorded "steamboat minor" long-bells
 A well known commercially made chime was Hancock Inspirator Company's
three-note step top

These found use on almost every American railroad. Some railroads copied these
also, examples being found on the old St. Louis–San Francisco Railway and
Illinois Central.The Southern Railway (U.S.)|Southern Railway made three-chime train whistles.
 These were all distinctive, having top-mounted levers.
They had short-bell three-chimes as well as their highly copied
long-bell three-chimes on passenger engines, especially their PS4 engines,
one of which resides today in the Smithsonian Institution.

Two-note and four-note train whistles never caught on with North American
railroads, with one exception: Canadian National Railway created a large four-chime
step-top whistle for limited use on some of their locomotives.
These were not common and only a few survive today in the hands of collectors.

North American train whistles were in single-note, three-note,
five-note and six-note combinations.

A few American railroads with whistles valued by collectors:

Southern Pacific for their six-chimes.
Union Pacific for their Hancock "steamboat" chimes.
Reading Railroad for their high-pitched passenger six-chimes.
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad]] for their five-chimes and three-chimes.
Baltimore and Ohio for their three-chime step-tops and six-chimes.
Grand Trunk for their shop-made six-chimes (Nathan copies).
New York Central for their shop-made six-chimes.
Norfolk and Western for their low pitched, distinctive sounding 'hooter' whistles.

==Whistle code==

Train whistles are used to communicate to other railroad workers on a train or to
railroad workers in the yard.

Different combinations of long and short whistles each have their own meaning.
They are used to pass instructions, as a safety signal, and to warn of impending movements of a train.
Despite the advent of modern radio communication, many of these whistle signals are still used today.
 See also Common horn signalsTrain horn (Common horn signals).)

Signals illustrated below are for North American railroads, an o for short sounds,
and - for longer sounds.

Succession of short sounds
Used when an emergency exists, or if persons or livestock are on the track.                            
When train is stopped. The air brakes are applied and pressure is equalized.                          – –
Train releases brakes and proceeds.                                                                                         o o
Acknowledgment of any signal not otherwise provided for.                                      o o o
When train is stopped: means backing up, or acknowledgment of a hand signal to back up. o o o o
|Request for a signal to be given or repeated if not understood.                                                 – o o
|Warning that a second section of a timetabled train is following.                                            – o o o
Instruction for flagman to protect rear of train.                                                                           – – – –
Flagman return from the west or south.                                                                                    – – – – –
Flagman return from the east or north.                                                                                       – – o –
Train is approaching public grade crossing(s). This is known as ''Rule 14L''
in almost all railroad operating rules.                                                                                           – o

Inspect the brake system for leaks or sticking brakes.

Other whistle codes Not all railroads use exactly the same whistle signals or assign the same meanings.
Some railroads will use their own variations of the above. A few of the signals are obsolete because the workers
they were used to communicate with (such as flagman) are now obsolete.

* Doppler effect
It is train whistles that led to the discovery of the Doppler effect. At the time,
trains were one of the few objects that would move quickly while playing a relatively constant
(though not single-note) sound.

Awaits more photos to be cont and edited.

Whistle Museum A Strauss , Al rights reserved. to intro photos and whistle notes



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